In his videos and lectures, artist and art teacher, Marshall Vandruff, is critical of artists who are "bound by reference." Meaning that those artists who are only capable of working from a two-dimensional reference (like a photo), or from a three-dimensional reference (like a model), are something less than those who work from their imaginations.

I’m guilty of being "bound by reference," and see my lack of imaginative drawing ability as a serious shortcoming. Drawing from my imagination is something I had as child, but have lost as my art education has progressed over the years. Sadly, I’m much more comfortable "working from reference."

However, I also enjoy stretching my creative muscles, and drawing "Monster Portraits" from my imagination. Below are some sketches, and lower down the page some finished examples. All images were completed using traditional media (ink, colored chalk, colored pencils, and watercolor), no digital tools.

Please click on an image to see it larger, and with more detail.